Virus Research 240 (2017) 166–174 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Virus Research journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/virusres The HBx gene of hepatitis B virus can inﬂuence hepatic microenvironment MARK via exosomes by transferring its mRNA and protein a a b a Neetu Rohit Kapoor , Radhika Chadha , Saravanan Kumar , Tenzin Choedon , b a, Vanga Siva Reddy , Vijay Kumar Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India Plant Transformation Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India ARTICLE I NFO ABSTRACT Keywords: The cellular secretory vesicles known as ‘exosomes’ have emerged as key player in intercellular transport and Hepatitis B virus communication between diﬀerent eukaryotic in order to maintain body homeostasis. Many pathogenic viruses HBx protein utilize exosome pathway to eﬃciently transfer bioactive components from infected cells to naïve cells. Here, we Exosome show that HBx can tweak the exosome biogenesis machinery both by enhancing neutral sphingomyelinase2 Hepatic stellate cells activity as well as by interacting with exosomal biomarkers such as neutral sphingomyelinase2, CD9 and CD81. Liver disease The nano particle tracking analysis revealed enhanced secretion of exosomes by the HBx-expressing cells while Neutral sphingomyelinase2 confocal studies conﬁrmed the co-localization of
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