Journal of Environmental Management 203 (2017) 17e28 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Environmental Management journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jenvman Research article The efﬁcacy of combined educational and site management actions in reducing off-trail hiking in an urban-proximate protected area a b, * c Karen S. Hockett , Jeffrey L. Marion , Yu-Fai Leung Yosemite National Park, Division of Resources Management & Science, 5083 Foresta Rd., El Portal, CA 95318, USA U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Virginia Tech, Dept. of Forest Resources & Environmental Conservation (0324), Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA North Carolina State University, Dept. of Parks, Recreation & Tourism Management, 5107 Jordan Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA art i cle i nfo abstract Article history: Park and protected area managers are tasked with protecting natural environments, a particularly Received 29 June 2017 daunting challenge in heavily visited urban-proximate areas where ﬂora and fauna are already stressed Accepted 30 June 2017 by external threats. In this study, an adaptive management approach was taken to reduce extensive off- Available online 1 August 2017 trail hiking along a popular trail through an ecologically diverse and signiﬁcant area in the Chesapeake and Ohio National Historical Park near Washington DC. Substantial amounts
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