•Small individuals of native forest trees declined sharply with ungulate exposure.•Ungulates had no apparent effect on small individuals of alien forest trees.•Ungulates had strong negative effects on native understory plant species.•Density of alien understory plant species increased when protected from ungulates.•Competition between native and alien species in the understory was not detected.
Forest Ecology and Management – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2018
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