Background: The efficacy of aminoguanidine (AG) on primary prevention of diabetic nephropathy was investigated in a nonhuman primate model of Type 1 diabetes over a period of 4 years. Methods: Adolescent male baboons ( Papio hamadryas ) were assigned to four groups: control, diabetic, and control and diabetic treated with AG. Diabetes was induced with streptozocin (60 mg/kg) and treated with insulin to maintain a mean HbA1c level of about 9%. AG was given subcutaneously (10 mg/kg) each day. All animals had annual renal biopsies and 24-h urine collections for measurements of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness, fractional mesangium volume (FMV), albumin excretion rate (AER), and creatinine clearance. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were also determined. Result: The diabetic animals had increased GBM after 2 years of diabetes, but there was no increase in FMV over the study period. AG prevented the thickening of GBM at the 3- and 4-year time points. AG and diabetes synergistically increased the GFR. All diabetic animals developed increased albuminuria during the study although lower than the conventionally accepted microalbuminuria range. AG was not able to prevent this and, in fact, led to the nondiabetic animals also developing albuminuria. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate the early use of AG in ameliorating renal damage in a primate model of Type 1 diabetes. The structural and functional changes in the kidney of these animals resemble those seen in the early stages of the human disease. AG was able to significantly reduce the thickening of GBM due to diabetes. This may suggest a potential role for this in primary prevention of diabetic nephropathy in the future.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications – Elsevier
Published: Jul 1, 2002
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