The biosynthesis and functional role of cardiolipin

The biosynthesis and functional role of cardiolipin 1 <h5>Introduction</h5> Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid with dimeric structure, carrying four acyl groups and two negative charges. It is exclusively found in bacterial and mitochondrial membranes, which are designed to generate an electrochemical potential for substrate transport and ATP synthesis. The name “cardiolipin” alludes to the tissue from which it was first isolated in 1942 [1] . Indeed, cardiolipin is most abundant in mammalian hearts, and commercial preparations of cardiolipin are derived from heart tissue to this day. However, cardiolipin can be found in all mammalian tissues and throughout the eukaryotic kingdom, wherever mitochondria occur. For decades, the biomembrane function of cardiolipin has been unresolved, although it is widely believed that its function is related to its unique ability to interact with proteins. The recent identification of yeast genes encoding the cardiolipin biosynthetic enzymes and subsequent generation of cardiolipin deficient strains have provided powerful molecular tools to understand the biosynthesis and function of cardiolipin. The present review will address studies of the structure, biosynthesis, and function of cardiolipin, primarily in eukaryotes. In addition, the role of cardiolipin in mitochondrial biogenesis and its involvement in human disease is discussed. Finally, we pose several unanswered questions that are avenues http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Progress in Lipid Research Elsevier

The biosynthesis and functional role of cardiolipin

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd
ISSN
0163-7827
eISSN
1873-2194
DOI
10.1016/S0163-7827(00)00005-9
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

1 <h5>Introduction</h5> Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid with dimeric structure, carrying four acyl groups and two negative charges. It is exclusively found in bacterial and mitochondrial membranes, which are designed to generate an electrochemical potential for substrate transport and ATP synthesis. The name “cardiolipin” alludes to the tissue from which it was first isolated in 1942 [1] . Indeed, cardiolipin is most abundant in mammalian hearts, and commercial preparations of cardiolipin are derived from heart tissue to this day. However, cardiolipin can be found in all mammalian tissues and throughout the eukaryotic kingdom, wherever mitochondria occur. For decades, the biomembrane function of cardiolipin has been unresolved, although it is widely believed that its function is related to its unique ability to interact with proteins. The recent identification of yeast genes encoding the cardiolipin biosynthetic enzymes and subsequent generation of cardiolipin deficient strains have provided powerful molecular tools to understand the biosynthesis and function of cardiolipin. The present review will address studies of the structure, biosynthesis, and function of cardiolipin, primarily in eukaryotes. In addition, the role of cardiolipin in mitochondrial biogenesis and its involvement in human disease is discussed. Finally, we pose several unanswered questions that are avenues

Journal

Progress in Lipid ResearchElsevier

Published: May 1, 2000

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