The possible contamination of the environment by surfactants arising from the widespread use of detergent formulations has been reviewed. Two of the major surfactants in current use are the linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) and the alkyl phenol ethoxylates (APE). These pass into the sewage treatment plants where they are partially aerobically degraded and partially adsorbed to sewage sludge that is applied to land. The biodegradation of these and a range of other surfactants both in wastewater treatment plants and after discharge into natural waters and application to land resulting in sewage sludge amended soils has been considered. Although the application of sewage sludge to soil can result in surfactant levels generally in a range 0 to 3 mg kg −1 , in the aerobic soil environment a surfactant can undergo further degradation so that the risk to the biota in soil is very small, with margins of safety that are often at least 100. In the case of APE, while the surfactants themselves show little toxicity their breakdown products, principally nonyl and octyl phenols adsorb readily to suspended solids and are known to exhibit oestrogen-like properties, possibly linked to a decreasing male sperm count and carcinogenic effects. While there is little serious risk to the environment from commonly used anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants are known to be much more toxic and at present there is a lack of data on the degradation of cationics and their fate in the environment.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Biomembranes Or Bba Biomembranes – Elsevier
Published: Nov 23, 2000
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera