1 Introduction</h5> Disparities in educational achievement for various groups in the United States have been a concern of policy makers and economists for years. In a number of studies, significant portions of observed racial wage differentials can be explained by controlling for earlier academic achievement, raising concerns about long-term effects of relative school performance. 1 1 For example, see O’Gorman (2010) , O’Neill (1990) , and Johnson and Neal (1998) . While the black-white achievement gap has been extensively studied, 2 2 For literature on the effect of socioeconomic conditions and family background on the black-white achievement gap, see Phillips and James Crouse (1998) , Fryer and Levitt (2004) , Armor (1992) , Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, and Aber (1997) and Mayer (1997) . the relative achievement of American Indians has received far less attention, especially by economists. 3 3 We use the designation “American Indian” rather than “Native American” as it is the term used by NCES for racial and ethnic classification on the student and school records. “Native American” is also confusing as it can mean any student born in the United States, as opposed to an immigrant. Part of this is due to the small number of
Economics of Education Review – Elsevier
Published: Oct 1, 2013
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