This paper overviews the technological, technical, economic, environmental, social, toxicological and human health risk considerations of biodiesel production and use. The future efforts in the technological domain should be directed towards low–cost and non–edible feedstocks, advanced technologies with reduced overall production costs and profitable production capacity. Process innovations that include new more active and stable catalysts, advanced reactors, continuous operation, lower energy inputs, better energy balance and lower GHG emissions and produce low or no wastes can lead to more efficient biodiesel production. Environmentally sustainable biodiesel production requires that sustainability standards cover direct and indirect impacts on the environment, i.e. soil, water and air. The combination of technological with economic, social and environmental issues will increase biodiesel benefits and may lead to integrated biorefineries capable of producing sustainable biodiesel and other valuable chemicals. Government policies will be the primary driving force for further increases in biodiesel production. Increased cooperation among governments and various stakeholders is needed to develop and apply corresponding sustainability criteria in a consistent way worldwide as soon as possible.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews – Elsevier
Published: Nov 1, 2017
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