Teaching and Teacher Education 22 (2006) 1–21
Teacher characteristics and teaching styles as effectiveness
enhancing factors of classroom practice
, Jan Van Damme
Department of Educational Sciences, Centre for Educational Effectiveness and Evaluation, K.U. Leuven, Dekenstraat 2,
Leuven B-3000, Belgium
Department of Educational Sciences, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
This study examined effects of teacher characteristics (gender, teacher education and certiﬁcation, class management
skills and job satisfaction) and teaching styles on indicators of good classroom practice in mathematics classes in
secondary education by means of multilevel analysis. The study reveals that the presence of effective classroom practices
can be explained by a learner-centered teaching style and by good class management skills. Furthermore, it was found
that teachers with a high level of job satisfaction give more instructional support to their classes, especially to classes
from a low-ability range, than teachers with a low level of job satisfaction.
r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Teaching style; Classroom practice; Multilevel analysis
Research on educational effectiveness often
investigates the importance of what’s going on in
the classroom with respect to cognitive and non-
cognitive outcomes. Factors such as the quality of
teaching (sometimes operationalised as structured
or direct teaching), time on task, opportunity to
learn (content covered), effective learning time,
classroom management, classroom climate, and
relationships within the classroom have not only
often been included as promising explanatory
variables in models about learning and educa-
tional effectiveness, but their relevance has also
regularly been proven in educational effectiveness
research (Creemers, 1994b; Doyle, 1985; Fraser,
Walberg, Welch, & Hattie, 1987; Scheerens, 1992;
Scheerens & Bosker, 1997; Slavin, 1996; Stallings,
1985; Teddlie & Reynolds, 2000). The importance
of student and teacher interactions and of (other)
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The writing of the paper was funded by the Flemish
Minister of Education and Training, in the context of the
programme ‘Policy Research Centres’ and by a grant from the
Catholic University of Leuven.
Corresponding author. Tel.: +32 16 32 62 60;
fax: +32 16 32 58 59.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
be (M.-C. Opdenakker).