1 <h5>Introduction</h5> Starch is an insoluble polymer of glucose (Glc) produced by the majority of higher plant species and plays important roles in agriculture, industry and human consumption. The production of starch in higher plants is orchestrated by four major types of enzymes, namely ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 188.8.131.52, AGPase), starch synthase (EC184.108.40.206, SS), starch-branching enzyme (EC 220.127.116.11, SBE), and starch-debranching enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168, DBE). Starch synthesis begins with the synthesis of ADPG from Glu-1-P and ATP via AGPase. SS catalyzes linear chain elongation by addition of a Glc unit donated from the nucleotide sugar (ADP-Glc) to the nonreducing end of an acceptor chain. Branch linkages are formed by the action of SBE, which cleaves a linear chain and transfers the released fragment to a C6 hydroxyl group of the same or a neighboring chain. DBE hydrolyzes branch linkages, and genetic evidence indicates that this function is necessary for plants in order to accumulate crystalline starch. 1 </P>Starch has two major components, the basically linear α-polyglucan amylose and the branched α-polyglucan amylopectin. It is generally held that granule-bound starch synthase is responsible for amylose synthesis, located within the starch granules, while other isoforms of starch synthase, together with starch-branching
Carbohydrate Research – Elsevier
Published: Sep 27, 2011
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