1 Introduction</h5> Among the primary producers of the Earth's hydrosphere, cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB) have witnessed the most crucial changes in the ocean chemical composition and redox state ( Canfield, 2005; Scott et al., 2008; Johnston et al., 2009; Raiswell and Canfield, 2012 ). These microorganisms have been preserved since early Precambrian; therefore, they have encountered a range of concentrations and bioavailabilities of dissolved metals, notably micronutrients (e.g., Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Co, Mn, and Mo), that is likely much broader than other bacteria and algae. Although anoxygenic photosynthesis was especially important in shallow marine environments before oxygenic photosynthesis and widespread atmospheric oxygenation ( Olson and Blankenship, 2004; Canfield, 2005; Johnston et al., 2009 ), it remains dominant in numerous ecological niches, from oxyclines in stratified lakes and humid soils to bacterial biomats in thermal settings ( Van Gemerden and Beeftink, 1983; Imhoff, 1992; Madigan and Jung, 2009 ). Thus, anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria will likely encounter a broad range of trace element concentrations. Among various APB, Rhodopseudomonas palustris is one of the most metabolically versatile bacteria ( Frank et al., 2004 ). It can use sunlight, inorganic and organic compounds for energy. In contrast to other
Chemical Geology – Elsevier
Published: Sep 15, 2014
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