Article history: BiFeO (BFO) thin ﬁlms and Rare-Earth (RE) element substitutions were successfully fabricated on silicon Received 30 March 2017 substrates by sol–gel technology. Multiferroic properties of BFO had been improved considerably on RE Received in revised form 15 July 2017 (La, Ho, Er)-substitution at Bi site. The RE-substitution principle was presented in Fig. 1(the simulative Accepted 10 August 2017 images of ions matching). The single phase and the perovskite based rhombohedral structure with R3c Available online 18 August 2017 space group of BFO and RE-substitution ﬁlms were conﬁrmed through the full pattern ﬁtting of surface and section XRD proﬁles. There were obvious agglomeration phenomena for RE-substitution ﬁlms via Keywords: FESEM patterns, and the AFM images shown that the RE-substation ﬁlms possessed smoother surface BiFeO texture comparing with the BFO. The RE-substitution ﬁlms showed higher saturation magnetization (Ms) Substitution and remanent magnetization (Mr) due to the reduced concentration of defects (oxygen vacancy), RE ions Magnetic materials 3+ 2− with smaller radii size (size effect) and surface structure of compactness. Fe and O ions play an Perovskite structure essential role in superexchange interaction, the XPS, surface and vertical EDS images revealed increasing 3+ 2− tendency of Fe ions and O
Applied Surface Science – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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