The occurrence and fate of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in a typical swine farm with lagoon waste disposal systems, in south China. Nineteen, 22 and 8 of 28 steroids were detected at concentrations ranging from 2.2 ± 0.1 ng/g (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) to 14,400 ± 394 ng/g (progesterone) in the feces samples, from 6.1 ± 2.3 ng/L (17β-boldenone) to 10,800 ± 3190 ng/L (norgestrel) in the flush water samples, and from 5.0 ± 0.2 ng/g (progesterone) to 225 ± 79.4 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the suspended particles, respectively. By comparing the types and concentrations of steroids in different treatment stages of the lagoon systems, it demonstrated that the lagoon systems used in the farm were not effective method to reduce various steroids in wastewater. Among the thirteen synthetic steroids detected in the swine feces and flush water, only seven (methyl testosterone, 17α-trenbolone, 17β-trenbolone, 17α-ethynyl estradiol, dexamethasone, medroxyprogesterone, and norgestrel) were regarded as the parent/metabolite compounds of animal exogenous usage. According to the estimated masses of steroids from feces and flush water, the excretion of steroids for sows were mainly from feces, but for piglets or barrows, most excreted steroids were through flush water rather than feces. The total daily excreted masses of androgens, estrogens, glucocortcoids and progestagens in the sow feces were in the range of 90.7–6310 μg/d, which were up to a thousand fold of those in the feces of other growth stages indicating that the proportion of sow number in the swine farm directly influenced the total excretion mass of steroids. In addition, two natural steroids 4-androstene-3,17-dione and progesterone were worth notice due to their relatively high concentrations per sow excretion, 277 μg/d and 6380 μg/d, respectively, which are approximately equivalent to the daily excretion of 100 persons. Some steroids were also detected in the well water, vegetable field and receiving stream, and may pose potential high risks to some sensitive organisms in the receiving environment.
Water Research – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2012
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera