Spatio-temporal distribution of perchlorate and its toxicity in Hydrilla verticillata

Spatio-temporal distribution of perchlorate and its toxicity in Hydrilla verticillata The spatio-temporal distribution of perchlorate in water sources around an ammonium perchlorate production unit and its toxicity response on a dominant aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata are reported in this study. Samples (n=453) from ground water (open well) and surface water sources within 5km from the production unit over a period of 12 months (2014, June − 2015, May) were screened for ClO4−. During the period, ClO4−concentration in ground water samples close to the production unit increased to >40,000μg/L, and ClO4− was detected at 1740μg/L in well water 1.6km away from the production unit. A community pond in the area also showed an increase in ClO4− level up to 29,000μg/L. In all water sources, ClO4− level was maximum during the rainy season (July, monsoon). A natural degradation of ClO4− was not observed in the area as evident from its persistent level and spreading to more areas. H. verticillata, the dominant vegetation in the pond exhibited severe toxic response like massive decay and loss of photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll and carotene due to ClO4− exposure. The plant accumulated ClO4− up to 60±0.8mg/kg wet weight with a Bio-Concentration Factor 2.06±0.005. This is the first report on spatio-temporal distribution of ClO4− at higher levels in a natural environment and its toxicity response to plants under natural condition. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Elsevier

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
ISSN
0147-6513
eISSN
1090-2414
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.06.053
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The spatio-temporal distribution of perchlorate in water sources around an ammonium perchlorate production unit and its toxicity response on a dominant aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata are reported in this study. Samples (n=453) from ground water (open well) and surface water sources within 5km from the production unit over a period of 12 months (2014, June − 2015, May) were screened for ClO4−. During the period, ClO4−concentration in ground water samples close to the production unit increased to >40,000μg/L, and ClO4− was detected at 1740μg/L in well water 1.6km away from the production unit. A community pond in the area also showed an increase in ClO4− level up to 29,000μg/L. In all water sources, ClO4− level was maximum during the rainy season (July, monsoon). A natural degradation of ClO4− was not observed in the area as evident from its persistent level and spreading to more areas. H. verticillata, the dominant vegetation in the pond exhibited severe toxic response like massive decay and loss of photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll and carotene due to ClO4− exposure. The plant accumulated ClO4− up to 60±0.8mg/kg wet weight with a Bio-Concentration Factor 2.06±0.005. This is the first report on spatio-temporal distribution of ClO4− at higher levels in a natural environment and its toxicity response to plants under natural condition.

Journal

Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyElsevier

Published: Oct 1, 2017

References

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