Dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethanol) found in the environment is not only a miticide originated from commercial use, but also a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which is often overlooked. To verify the sources and transformation pathways of DDT and related metabolites in soils, we measured p,p’-(dicofol + DBP) (sum of p,p’-dicofol and 4,4′-dichlorobenzophenone), DDT and six metabolites in soils from Northwest Fujian, China. The ratios of 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p’-DDT)/1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p’-DDT) and the mass balance demonstrated that p,p’-(dicofol + DBP) predominantly originated from p,p’-DDT transformation rather than from actual dicofol application. p,p’-(dicofol + DBP) accounted for 45.0% as the primary metabolites of DDT in this study, more than 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p’-DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p’-DDD), which might lead to large overestimations of the fresh DDT input by using the traditional ratio of (∑2DDD + ∑2DDE)/∑2DDT (with all o,p’- and p,p’- isomers included). In paddy fields where the conditions alternate between aerobic (dry period) and anaerobic (wet period), both p,p’-DDD and p,p’-DDE were likely to degrade to 1-chloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p’-DDMU), which further transformed to 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p’-DDNU). Degradation of p,p’-DDMU to p,p’-DDNU mainly occurred in waterlogged paddy soils. However, p,p’-DDNU might not transform to other higher-order metabolites in aerobic surface soils. Overall, our study confirmed p,p’-(dicofol + DBP) as metabolites of p,p’-DDT, suggested DDE and DDD were parallel precursors of DDMU, and further verified the transformation pathways of DDT in surface soils.
Environmental Pollution – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera