Strong acid rain was recently observed over Northeastern China, particularly in summer in Liaoning Province where alkaline dust largely neutralized acids in the past. This seems to be related to the regional transboundary pollution and poses new challenges in acid rain control scheme in China. In order to delve into the regional transport impact, and quantify its potential contributions to such an “eruption” of acid rain over Liaoning, this paper employs an online source tagging model in coupling with the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS). Validation of predictions shows the model capability in reproducing key meteorological and chemical features. Acid concentration over Liaoning is more pronounced in August (average of 0.087 mg/m3) with strong pollutant import from regional sources against significant depletion of basic species. Seasonal mean contributions from regional sources are assessed at both lower and upper boundary layers to elucidate the main pathways of the impact of regional sources on acid concentration over Liaoning. At the upper layer (1.2 km), regional sources contribute to acid concentration over Liaoning by 67%, mainly from Shandong (16%), Hebei (13%), Tianjin (11%) and Korean Peninsula (9%). Identified main city-receptors in Liaoning are Dandong, Dalian, Chaohu, Yingkou, Liaoyang, Jinfu, Shengyang, Panjin, Tieling, Benxi, Anshan and Fushun. At lower layer (120 m) where Liaoning local contribution is dominant (58%), regional sources account for 39% in acid concentration. However, inter-municipal acid exchanges are prominent at this layer and many cities in Liaoning are revealed as important sources of local acid production. Seasonal acid contribution average within 1.2 km-120 m attains 55%, suggesting dominance of vertical pollutant transport from regional sources towards lower boundary layer in Liaoning. As direct environmental implication, this study provides policy makers with a perspective of regulating the regional transboundary environmental impact assessment in China with application to acid rain control.
Environmental Pollution – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2018
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