PM2.5 is one of the most studied atmospheric pollutants due to its adverse impacts on human health and welfare and the environment. An improved model (the chemical mass balance gas constraint-Iteration: CMBGC-Iteration) is proposed and applied to identify source categories and estimate source contributions of PM2.5. The CMBGC-Iteration model uses the ratio of gases to PM as constraints and considers the uncertainties of source profiles and receptor datasets, which is crucial information for source apportionment. To apply this model, samples of PM2.5 were collected at Tianjin, a megacity in northern China. The ambient PM2.5 dataset, source information, and gas-to-particle ratios (such as SO2/PM2.5, CO/PM2.5, and NOx/PM2.5 ratios) were introduced into the CMBGC-Iteration to identify the potential sources and their contributions. Six source categories were identified by this model and the order based on their contributions to PM2.5 was as follows: secondary sources (30%), crustal dust (25%), vehicle exhaust (16%), coal combustion (13%), SOC (7.6%), and cement dust (0.40%). In addition, the same dataset was also calculated by other receptor models (CMB, CMB-Iteration, CMB-GC, PMF, WALSPMF, and NCAPCA), and the results obtained were compared. Ensemble-average source impacts were calculated based on the seven source apportionment results: contributions of secondary sources (28%), crustal dust (20%), coal combustion (18%), vehicle exhaust (17%), SOC (11%), and cement dust (1.3%). The similar results of CMBGC-Iteration and ensemble method indicated that CMBGC-Iteration can produce relatively appropriate results.
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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