For as long as people have managed natural resources, they have engaged in collective action. But development assistance has paid too little attention to how social and human capital affects environmental outcomes. Social capital comprises relations of trust, reciprocity, common rules, norms and sanctions, and connectedness in institutions. Recent years have seen remarkable advances in group formation, with in the past decade some 408,000–478,000 groups emerging with 8.2–14.3 million members in watershed, irrigation, microfinance, forest, and integrated pest management, and for farmers' research. A new typology describes the evolution of groups through three stages, and indicates what kinds of policy support are needed to safeguard and spread achievements.
World Development – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2001
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