The decline in amphibian populations is a critical threat to global biodiversity, and pesticide pollution is considered as one of the major factors. Although effects of single pesticides on amphibians have been documented, toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of pesticides have not been well elucidated. Strobilurin and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides are new types of commonly used pesticides. In this study, effects of three strobilurins (pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin), two SDHIs (isopyrazam and bixafen), and their mixtures on X. tropicalis embryos were fully investigated. Results showed that exposure to individual fungicides induced lethal and teratogenetic effects; and malformed embryos displayed similar phenotypes including microcephaly, hypopigmentation, somite segmentation and narrow fin. Exposure to two strobilurins or two SDHIs at equitoxic concentrations caused additive or synergetic effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. TU for mixtures of isopyrazam and bixafen was 0.53 and 0.30 for lethal and teratogenic toxicity, respectively. Finally, binary mixtures of strobilurins and SDHIs also exhibited additive or synergetic effects on amphibian embryos. Overall, these results reveal that the mixtures of multiple fungicides caused a higher incidence of lethality and teratogenicity of amphibian embryos, compared to a single fungicide at the corresponding doses. Our findings provide important data about the ecotoxicology of agricultural fungicides on non-target organisms, which is useful for guiding management practices for pesticides.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: May 30, 2018
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