Sex steroids and the kidney: role in renal calcium and phosphate handling

Sex steroids and the kidney: role in renal calcium and phosphate handling Calcium and phosphate are vital for the organism and constitute essential components of the skeleton. Serum levels are tightly hormonally regulated and maintained by exchange with three major sources: the intestines, the kidney and the bone. The effects of sex steroids on the bone have been extensively studied and it is well known that sex steroid deficiency induces bone loss, indirectly influencing renal calcium and phosphate homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether sex steroids also directly regulate renal calcium and phosphate handling, hereby potentially indirectly impacting on bone. The presence of androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER) in both human and rodent kidney, although their exact localization within the kidney remains debated, supports direct effects. Estrogens stimulate renal calcium reabsorption as well as phosphate excretion, while the effects of androgens are less clear. Many of the studies performed with regard to renal calcium and/or phosphate homeostasis do not correct for the calcium and phosphate fluxes from the bone and intestines, which complicates the differentiation between the direct effects of sex steroids on renal calcium and phosphate handling and the indirect effects via the bone and intestines.The objective of this study is to review the literature and current insight of the role of sex steroids in calcium and phosphate handling in the kidney. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Elsevier

Sex steroids and the kidney: role in renal calcium and phosphate handling

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
ISSN
0303-7207
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.mce.2017.11.011
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Calcium and phosphate are vital for the organism and constitute essential components of the skeleton. Serum levels are tightly hormonally regulated and maintained by exchange with three major sources: the intestines, the kidney and the bone. The effects of sex steroids on the bone have been extensively studied and it is well known that sex steroid deficiency induces bone loss, indirectly influencing renal calcium and phosphate homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether sex steroids also directly regulate renal calcium and phosphate handling, hereby potentially indirectly impacting on bone. The presence of androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER) in both human and rodent kidney, although their exact localization within the kidney remains debated, supports direct effects. Estrogens stimulate renal calcium reabsorption as well as phosphate excretion, while the effects of androgens are less clear. Many of the studies performed with regard to renal calcium and/or phosphate homeostasis do not correct for the calcium and phosphate fluxes from the bone and intestines, which complicates the differentiation between the direct effects of sex steroids on renal calcium and phosphate handling and the indirect effects via the bone and intestines.The objective of this study is to review the literature and current insight of the role of sex steroids in calcium and phosphate handling in the kidney.

Journal

Molecular and Cellular EndocrinologyElsevier

Published: Apr 15, 2018

References

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