Conventional drug delivery systems contain substantial amounts of excipients such as polymers and lipids, typically with low drug loading capacity and lack of intrinsic traceability and multifunctionality. Here, we report fully active pharmaceutical ingredient nanoparticles (FAPIN) which were self-assembled by minimal materials, but seamlessly orchestrated versatile theranostic functionalities including: i) self-delivery: no additional carriers were required, all components in the formulation are active pharmaceutical ingredients; ii) self-indicating: no additional imaging tags were needed. The nanoparticle itself was composed of 100% imaging agents, so that the stability, drug release, subcellular dispositions, biodistribution and therapeutic efficacy of FAPINs can be readily visualized by ample imaging capacities, including energy transfer relay dominated, dual-color fluorogenic property, near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging; and iii) highly effective trimodality cancer therapy, encompassing photodynamic-, photothermal- and chemo-therapies. FAPINs were fabricated with very simple material (a photosensitizer-drug conjugate), unusually achieved ∼10 times better in vitro antitumor activity than their free counterparts, and were remarkably efficacious in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) glioblastoma multiforme animal models. Only two doses of FAPINs enabled complete ablation of highly-malignant PDX tumors in 50% of the mice.
Biomaterials – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2018
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