With the aid of modern sedimentology, seismic geomorphology, and the comprehensive analysis of geophysical data and core data from more than 10 wells, the Qingshankou Formation has been divided into 3 long-term cycles and further into 6 medium-term cycles in the Qijia area, Songliao Basin. The 3 long-term cycles, SQ1, SQ2 and SQ3 correspond to the members Qing I, Qing II and Qing III of the Qingshankou Formation, spanning 11.5 Ma during the Late Cretaceous. The time scale of the medium-term cycles, which are subunits of the long-term cycles, is approximately 0.5–1.5 Ma with thicknesses ranging from 45 m to 116 m. A shallow-water delta that consists of high-maturity fine-grained sandstone developed in the Qingshankou Formation. The scour surfaces reflect strong flow action, and the parallel bedding and large-scale cross bedding are well developed. Distributary channel sandstones are well developed in the shallow-water delta depositional system, in which a single channel can be several meters thick. The cumulative thickness of the distributary channels can reach tens of meters across a large area, extending tens of kilometers to the center of the lacustrine basin. The development of the subaqueous distributary channel of the shallow-water delta is closely related to base level (lake level) changes. In the early stage of a rising half-cycle and the late stage of a falling half-cycle, the fluviation is significant and the well-developed channel sandstone can extend towards the center of the lacustrine basin more than 50 km, with large cumulative thicknesses of compound sandbodies (17–28 m) and high sandstone-to-strata ratios (78–88%). In the late stage of a rising half-cycle and the early stage of a falling half-cycle, the lake level is high and the fluviation is weak, resulting in a distributary channel extent of less than 30 km, small cumulative thicknesses of compound sandbodies (5–12 m) and low sandstone-to-strata ratios (22–45%). The delta front can be divided into the inner front and the outer front. The subaqueous distributary channels in the inner front have good continuity and extend further, whereas the subaqueous distributary channels in the outer front have poor continuity, and sheet sand is well developed. Therefore, a shallow-water delta generally shows features including (1) sedimentary structures formed by strong currents, (2) stacked fining upward rhythm, (3) subaqueous distributary channels well developed, (4) delta front divided further into an inner and an outer front. There was a relatively good linear relationship between the thickness of the sandbody based on the well data and the maximum amplitude of the seismic trace next to the well. The reddish amplitude of the seismic attribution suggests thicker channel sandbodies (4–9 m), whereas the light amplitude of the seismic attribution indicates thinner channel sandbody (1–4 m). Of the two typical sedimentary models for shallow-water deltas, delta plains develop well in humid climates and delta fronts develop well in arid climates, both of which are found in the Qijia area, Songliao Basin. Stratal slices from seismic geomorphology are applied to display the branchlike sandstone dispersal patterns of the shallow-water delta and the broad distribution characteristics. This study also notes that the delta front distributary channel sandstone, which is near an oil source and faults, would be a favorable exploration target.
Marine and Petroleum Geology – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2017
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