Introduction</h5> Streptococcus pneumoniae is a highly important respiratory pathogen and it is considered one of the primary causes of pneumonia and meningitis in children under 5 years old and adults over 65 years old in both developed and developing countries ( Scott, 2008; Mulholland, 2007 ). This bacterium has kept a high incidence of pathologies worldwide due to a combination of virulence factors, its ability to dodge early components of the host immune response and the emergence of antibiotics resistant strains because of an inappropriate use of antibiotics. Vulnerable groups are also immunocompromised patients and individuals with kidney, heart and lung diseases are considered to be susceptible to pneumococcal infection ( Lynch and Zhanel, 2009 ).</P>Currently, two types of pneumococcal vaccines are licensed: capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) and protein–polysaccharide conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV). Although the former includes serotypes responsible for most cases of pneumococcal diseases, the humoral immune response produced by this type of vaccine is T independent, which is an important disadvantage. Moreover, the PPV immunization does not protect children less than 2 years of age and adults over 65. The latter vaccine has a small number of polysaccharides chemically conjugated to proteins acting as carriers,
Immunobiology – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2015
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