River otters as biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs in Illinois

River otters as biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs in Illinois 1 Introduction</h5> Organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) are of global concern due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and adverse effects on humans and wildlife ( Bernanke and Kohler, 2008; Mnif et al., 2011 ). OHCs include three industrial chemical groups, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). OCPs are further divided into five groups: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its analogs, isomers of benzene hexachloride (BHC), cyclodiene insecticides (including heptachlor, chlordane, and aldrin), caged structures (e.g. mirex and chlordecone) and toxaphene ( Smith, 1991 ).</P>Cyclodiene insecticides were applied in Illinois cornfields from 1953 until their use was banned in 1978. Peak use occurred in 1967 when approximately 5.6 out of 10 million acres of corn soil in Illinois were treated. Of the OCPs applied to Illinois soil, aldrin was applied extensively; an estimated 44.9 million acres of corn soil were treated between 1956 and 1977 ( Steffey et al., 1984 ). The main epoxide of aldrin is dieldrin ( Koerner et al., 1999 ). Havera and Duzan (1986) reported dieldrin to be the contaminant posing the greatest threat to the health of birds of prey in Illinois between 1966 and 1981. The authors found that http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Elsevier

Loading next page...
Copyright © 2013 The Authors
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site


You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial