RETRACTED: Soil carbon stocks are underestimated in mountainous regions

RETRACTED: Soil carbon stocks are underestimated in mountainous regions Geoderma 320 (2018) 146–148 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Geoderma journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/geoderma a,b, a Songchao Chen , Dominique Arrouays INRA, Unité InfoSol, 45075 Orléans, France UMR SAS, INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, 35042 Rennes, France This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article inclination effect strongly influenced SOC stock estimates in mountai- Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/ nous regions and previous SOC stocks estimates were underestimated. article-withdrawal). We think that our conclusions are biased and that this paper should This article has been retracted at the request of the Authors, with be retracted. Actually, the hypothesis that SOC stocks estimates are the consent of the handling Editor, Alex B. McBratney and the Editor-in- sensitive to slope effect is wrong. It makes implicitly the hypothesis that Chief, Jan Willem van Groenigen. soil is a kind of mantle characterized by a given thickness and that what In this paper, we concluded that the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) we measure is this thickness perpendicular to the soil surface. stocks were underestimated in mountainous regions, mainly due to the In practice, the observations contained in the databases should have slope effect. We first stated that current estimates of SOC stocks are been made vertically, therefore the slope does not change the volume at calculated by multiplying the SOC density times the planimetric area of all. As shown in Fig. 1, if we consider a square pixel of N m , (with N = an individual cell, and that, the land surface is not always a horizontal length x width), the “Voxel” down to h cm is always N x h m (with h = plane and consequently the SOC stocks estimates may be biased, height) no matter how the shape of the surface is (the only rare ex- especially in mountainous regions. We then ran an exercise based on ception is overhanging areas). the Harmonised World Soil database (HWSD, Hiederer and Köchy, Consequently, the conclusions of our paper are wrong. The global 2012) and the Multi-Error-Re-moved Improved-Terrain DEM (MERIT stocks under mountainous areas are not underestimated, and the esti- DEM, Yamazaki et al., 2017). From this exercise, we concluded that mates of SOC stocks realised using the HWSD (Hiederer and Köchy, 2012) are not biased due to a slope effect. We fully apologize for this misconception. We retract this paper, in order that it is not used further by others to erroneously correct the SOC stock calculations, and that the error we made does not propagate into other studies. More generally, this error also raises questions about the definitions of soil depth and soil or horizon thickness. Indeed, soil horizons are often parallel to the soil surface and one may consider that the thickness should be measured in a strictly vertical way, or perpendicularly to the soil surface. References Hiederer, R., Köchy, M., 2012. Global Soil Organic Carbon Estimates and the Harmonized World Soil Database. 79 pp., EUR 25225 EN, EUR Scientific and Technical Research series. ISSN 1831-9424 (online), ISSN 1018-5593 (print), ISBN 978-92-79-23108-7, doi:10.2788/13267. Yamazaki, D., Ikeshima, D., Tawatari, R., Yamaguchi, T., O'Loughlin, F., Neal, J.C., Sampson, C.C., Kanae, S., Bates, P.D., 2017. A high accuracy map of global terrain elevations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 5844–5853. Fig. 1. Flat and undulating areas, and equal volumes down to a given depth. Corresponding author at: INRA, Unité InfoSol, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, CS 40001 Ardon, 45075 Orléans, France E-mail addresses: songchao.chen@inra.fr (S. Chen), dominique.arrouays@inra.fr (D. Arrouays). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.01.029 Available online 04 February 2018 0016-7061 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Geoderma Elsevier

RETRACTED: Soil carbon stocks are underestimated in mountainous regions

Geoderma, Volume 320 – Jun 15, 2018

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
ISSN
0016-7061
eISSN
1872-6259
DOI
10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.01.029
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Abstract

Geoderma 320 (2018) 146–148 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Geoderma journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/geoderma a,b, a Songchao Chen , Dominique Arrouays INRA, Unité InfoSol, 45075 Orléans, France UMR SAS, INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, 35042 Rennes, France This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article inclination effect strongly influenced SOC stock estimates in mountai- Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/ nous regions and previous SOC stocks estimates were underestimated. article-withdrawal). We think that our conclusions are biased and that this paper should This article has been retracted at the request of the Authors, with be retracted. Actually, the hypothesis that SOC stocks estimates are the consent of the handling Editor, Alex B. McBratney and the Editor-in- sensitive to slope effect is wrong. It makes implicitly the hypothesis that Chief, Jan Willem van Groenigen. soil is a kind of mantle characterized by a given thickness and that what In this paper, we concluded that the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) we measure is this thickness perpendicular to the soil surface. stocks were underestimated in mountainous regions, mainly due to the In practice, the observations contained in the databases should have slope effect. We first stated that current estimates of SOC stocks are been made vertically, therefore the slope does not change the volume at calculated by multiplying the SOC density times the planimetric area of all. As shown in Fig. 1, if we consider a square pixel of N m , (with N = an individual cell, and that, the land surface is not always a horizontal length x width), the “Voxel” down to h cm is always N x h m (with h = plane and consequently the SOC stocks estimates may be biased, height) no matter how the shape of the surface is (the only rare ex- especially in mountainous regions. We then ran an exercise based on ception is overhanging areas). the Harmonised World Soil database (HWSD, Hiederer and Köchy, Consequently, the conclusions of our paper are wrong. The global 2012) and the Multi-Error-Re-moved Improved-Terrain DEM (MERIT stocks under mountainous areas are not underestimated, and the esti- DEM, Yamazaki et al., 2017). From this exercise, we concluded that mates of SOC stocks realised using the HWSD (Hiederer and Köchy, 2012) are not biased due to a slope effect. We fully apologize for this misconception. We retract this paper, in order that it is not used further by others to erroneously correct the SOC stock calculations, and that the error we made does not propagate into other studies. More generally, this error also raises questions about the definitions of soil depth and soil or horizon thickness. Indeed, soil horizons are often parallel to the soil surface and one may consider that the thickness should be measured in a strictly vertical way, or perpendicularly to the soil surface. References Hiederer, R., Köchy, M., 2012. Global Soil Organic Carbon Estimates and the Harmonized World Soil Database. 79 pp., EUR 25225 EN, EUR Scientific and Technical Research series. ISSN 1831-9424 (online), ISSN 1018-5593 (print), ISBN 978-92-79-23108-7, doi:10.2788/13267. Yamazaki, D., Ikeshima, D., Tawatari, R., Yamaguchi, T., O'Loughlin, F., Neal, J.C., Sampson, C.C., Kanae, S., Bates, P.D., 2017. A high accuracy map of global terrain elevations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 5844–5853. Fig. 1. Flat and undulating areas, and equal volumes down to a given depth. Corresponding author at: INRA, Unité InfoSol, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, CS 40001 Ardon, 45075 Orléans, France E-mail addresses: songchao.chen@inra.fr (S. Chen), dominique.arrouays@inra.fr (D. Arrouays). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.01.029 Available online 04 February 2018 0016-7061

Journal

GeodermaElsevier

Published: Jun 15, 2018

References

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