1 Introduction</h5> The German government has decided to phase out nuclear power completely by 2022. At the same time, renewable power generation is to be expanded substantially. Renewable energy sources (RES) have to account for at least 35% of German gross electricity consumption by 2020 ( BMWi and BMU, 2010 ). This share was around 6% in the year 2000 and grew to 23% by 2012 ( BMU, 2013 ). The target values for 2030, 2040 and 2050 are 50%, 65% and 80%, respectively. The largest part of renewable power will come from wind and photovoltaics (PV). According to the medium scenario of the network development plan drafted by German transmission system operators (TSOs) in 2012, onshore and offshore wind account for around 45% of gross power demand by 2032, whereas PV contributes around 10% ( NEP, 2012 , scenario 2032B). Afterwards, the shares of wind and solar are projected to grow further until 2050 (cp. DLR, et al., 2012 ). 1 1 An English summary of DLR et al. (2012) is provided by Pregger et al. (2013) . </P>Wind power and PV differ from conventional power generators in many respects (cp. Joskow, 2011, Hirth, 2013 ). In
Energy Policy – Elsevier
Published: Oct 1, 2014
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