1 Introduction</h5> Crime, particularly violent crime, is a major concern for many cities in the United States and worldwide ( United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, 2005 ). Solutions to the problem of urban crime require a multi-faceted approach. Evolving literature suggests that potentially modifiable neighborhood characteristics such as trees and other vegetation are inversely associated with crime, so urban greening could be a relatively low-cost component of the solution. The traditional law enforcement view was that dense vegetation encouraged crime by obstructing surveillance and providing concealment for criminal activity ( Jeffery, 1971; Michael & Hull, 1994; Michael, Hull, & Zahm, 2001 ; Newman, 1978 ). This view was reinforced by studies that linked dense vegetation with crime and fear of crime ( Fisher & Nasar, 1992; Nasar & Fisher, 1993; Shaffer & Anderson, 1985 ). The prevailing message from these studies was that removal of vegetation could aid in crime reduction efforts, despite the fact that none of these studies measured crime occurrence.</P>However, more recent studies using crime data from police reports and other sources have found a negative relationship between vegetation and crime. A 2001 study of a public housing development in Chicago was first to
Landscape and Urban Planning – Elsevier
Published: Nov 1, 2015
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