1 Introduction</h5> The food extrusion process includes application of heat, moisture, shear and pressure to structures built of biopolymers, such as starch, protein and lipids, usually originating from cereals, leading to formation of a viscoelastic melt in the extruder barrel ( Colonna et al., 1989 ). During extrusion, biopolymers undergo many chemical and physical transformations Such as loss of crystallinity and depolymerisation of starch, denaturation and cross-linking of proteins, complexation between amylose and polar lipids and degradation reactions of polymers and other molecules. Furthermore, the enzymes are inactivated, which inhibits food deterioration during storage. Extrusion may also destroy naturally occurring toxic substances and increase microbial stability ( Colonna et al., 1989; Mitchell and Areas, 1992 ).</P>Variations in extrusion process parameters such as temperature, feed moisture, feed rate, screw speed and the addition of lipids have major impacts on the physicochemical properties of extrudates ( Singh et al., 1998 ). The mechanical forces, which are varied by the operating conditions for the extruder, experienced by the material, are often considered the critical factor in the alteration of the biopolymers. This mechanical energy is usually quantified by a measure of the specific mechanical energy (SME). While cereal extrusion with wheat
Journal of Cereal Science – Elsevier
Published: Jul 1, 2015
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