Fruit reflectance spectra of five apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars (Zhigulevskoe, Antonovka, Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Renet Simirenko) with a wide range of peel pigment (chlorophylls a and b , carotenoids and anthocyanins) content have been studied to develop non-destructive techniques for pigment assessment. In addition to chlorophylls, positions of in vivo absorption maxima were established for carotenoids (480, 455 and a shoulder at 425 nm) and for anthocyanins (near 550 nm). In anthocyanin-free fruit, a close relationship between reflectance at 550 nm (R 550 ) and 700 nm (R 700 ) has been found ( r 2 >0.95). In fruit with chlorophyll content more than 5 nmol/cm 2 , the reflectance near 678 nm was insensitive to a variation in chlorophylls, whereas, reflectance in the bands 550–650 nm and 690–705 nm remained sensitive to chlorophyll content in a wide range of its variation. The reflectance ratios, R 800 /R 700 and R 800 /R 640 , were directly proportional to total chlorophyll content ranging from 0.4 to 11 nmol/cm 2 ( r 2 >0.93). The reflectance in the band 520–530 nm was found to be dependent mostly on carotenoids absorption. The index R 800 (1/R 520 −1/R 700 ) was suggested for estimation of carotenoid content in the range 0.6–4.5 nmol/cm 2 . The index for assessment of a carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio was proposed in the form, (R 480 −R 678 )/R 800 . Reflectance in the green region of the spectrum proved to be sensitive to anthocyanin content. The index R 800 (1/R 550 −1/R 700 ) was developed to estimate anthocyanin content in peel ranging from 2.5 to 50 nmol/cm 2 ; the determination coefficient of the index with anthocyanin content was higher than 0.93.
Postharvest Biology and Technology – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2003
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