1 Introduction</h5> The highly eutrophied state of the Baltic Sea and implementation of the EU Water Directive have focused attention on the need to control phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) losses to water from agricultural land and identify possible solutions to mitigate such losses. In Sweden, leaching of P and N in drainage water has been identified as the primary pathway of emissions from agricultural land and it mainly takes place in October–April. Once soil P concentrations become elevated by excessive fertilisation or manure application, high levels of P leaching losses may follow (e.g. Kleinman et al., 2005; Kang et al., 2011 ) and can continue for many years (e.g. Buda et al., 2012 ).</P>Excessive application of poultry manure to cropping systems can result in nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 -N) leaching and contamination of groundwater, as shown, e.g. on a sandy loam in the US ( Bitzer and Sims, 1988 ). Significant leaching may also occur from the manure itself, with tracer experiments showing that 25% of N was leached from 15 N-labelled poultry manure applied at a rate of 100 kg N ha −1 ( Bergström and Kirchman, 2004 ). Elevated leaching of N several years after incorporation
Agricultural Water Management – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2014
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