Superoxide dismutases (SODs), a family of ubiquitous enzymes, provide essential protection to biological systems against uncontrolled reactions with oxygen- and nitrogen- based radical species. We review first the role of SODs in oxidative stress and the other biological functions such as peroxidase, nitrite oxidase, thiol oxidase activities etc., implicating its role in neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases, and ageing. Also, this review focuses on the development of electrochemical label-free immunosensor for SOD1 and the recent advances in biosensing assay methods based on their catalytic and biological functions with various substrates including reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide), nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite, nitrate) and thiols using thiol oxidase activity. Furthermore, we emphasize the progress made in improving the detection performance through incorporation of the SOD into conducting polymers and nanocomposite matrices. In addition, we address the potential opportunities, challenges, advances in electrochemical-sensing platforms and development of portable analyzer for point-of-care applications.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics – Elsevier
Published: Sep 30, 2018
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