Quantification of pathogens and markers of fecal contamination during storm events along popular surfing beaches in San Diego, California

Quantification of pathogens and markers of fecal contamination during storm events along popular... Along southern California beaches, the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used to quantify the potential presence of fecal contamination in coastal recreational waters have been previously documented to be higher during wet weather conditions (typically winter or spring) than those observed during summer dry weather conditions. FIB are used for management of recreational waters because measurement of the bacterial and viral pathogens that are the potential causes of illness in beachgoers exposed to stormwater can be expensive, time-consuming, and technically difficult. Here, we use droplet digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (digital PCR) and digital reverse transcriptase PCR (digital RT-PCR) assays for direct quantification of pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, and source-specific markers of fecal contamination in the stormwater discharges. We applied these assays across multiple storm events from two different watersheds that discharge to popular surfing beaches in San Diego, CA. Stormwater discharges had higher FIB concentrations as compared to proximal beaches, often by ten-fold or more during wet weather. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the stormwater discharges contained human fecal contamination, despite the presence of separate storm sewer and sanitary sewer systems in both watersheds. Human fecal source markers (up to 100% of samples, 20-12440 HF183 copies per 100 ml) and human norovirus (up to 96% of samples, 25-495 NoV copies per 100 ml) were routinely detected in stormwater discharge samples. Potential bacterial pathogens were also detected and quantified: Campylobacter spp. (up to 100% of samples, 16-504 gene copies per 100 ml) and Salmonella (up to 25% of samples, 6-86 gene copies per 100 ml). Other viral human pathogens were also measured, but occurred at generally lower concentrations: adenovirus (detected in up to 22% of samples, 14-41 AdV copies per 100 ml); no enterovirus was detected in any stormwater discharge sample. Higher concentrations of avian source markers were noted in the stormwater discharge located immediately downstream of a large bird sanctuary along with increased Campylobacter concentrations and notably different Campylobacter species composition than the watershed that had no bird sanctuary. This study is one of the few to directly measure an array of important bacterial and viral pathogens in stormwater discharges to recreational beaches, and provides context for stormwater-based management of beaches during high risk wet-weather periods. Furthermore, the combination of culture-based and digital PCR-derived data is demonstrated to be valuable for assessing hydrographic relationships, considering delivery mechanisms, and providing foundational exposure information for risk assessment. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Water Research Elsevier

Quantification of pathogens and markers of fecal contamination during storm events along popular surfing beaches in San Diego, California

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/quantification-of-pathogens-and-markers-of-fecal-contamination-during-8vNd0HwFmp
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0043-1354
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.watres.2018.01.056
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Along southern California beaches, the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used to quantify the potential presence of fecal contamination in coastal recreational waters have been previously documented to be higher during wet weather conditions (typically winter or spring) than those observed during summer dry weather conditions. FIB are used for management of recreational waters because measurement of the bacterial and viral pathogens that are the potential causes of illness in beachgoers exposed to stormwater can be expensive, time-consuming, and technically difficult. Here, we use droplet digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (digital PCR) and digital reverse transcriptase PCR (digital RT-PCR) assays for direct quantification of pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, and source-specific markers of fecal contamination in the stormwater discharges. We applied these assays across multiple storm events from two different watersheds that discharge to popular surfing beaches in San Diego, CA. Stormwater discharges had higher FIB concentrations as compared to proximal beaches, often by ten-fold or more during wet weather. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the stormwater discharges contained human fecal contamination, despite the presence of separate storm sewer and sanitary sewer systems in both watersheds. Human fecal source markers (up to 100% of samples, 20-12440 HF183 copies per 100 ml) and human norovirus (up to 96% of samples, 25-495 NoV copies per 100 ml) were routinely detected in stormwater discharge samples. Potential bacterial pathogens were also detected and quantified: Campylobacter spp. (up to 100% of samples, 16-504 gene copies per 100 ml) and Salmonella (up to 25% of samples, 6-86 gene copies per 100 ml). Other viral human pathogens were also measured, but occurred at generally lower concentrations: adenovirus (detected in up to 22% of samples, 14-41 AdV copies per 100 ml); no enterovirus was detected in any stormwater discharge sample. Higher concentrations of avian source markers were noted in the stormwater discharge located immediately downstream of a large bird sanctuary along with increased Campylobacter concentrations and notably different Campylobacter species composition than the watershed that had no bird sanctuary. This study is one of the few to directly measure an array of important bacterial and viral pathogens in stormwater discharges to recreational beaches, and provides context for stormwater-based management of beaches during high risk wet-weather periods. Furthermore, the combination of culture-based and digital PCR-derived data is demonstrated to be valuable for assessing hydrographic relationships, considering delivery mechanisms, and providing foundational exposure information for risk assessment.

Journal

Water ResearchElsevier

Published: Jun 1, 2018

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve Freelancer

DeepDyve Pro

Price
FREE
$49/month

$360/year
Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed
Create lists to
organize your research
Export lists, citations
Read DeepDyve articles
Abstract access only
Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles
Print
20 pages/month
PDF Discount
20% off