Obesity, a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with an autonomic imbalance characterized by sympathetic hyperactivity and diminished vagal activity. Vagal activation plays important roles in weight loss and improvement of cardiac function. Pyridostigmine is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, but whether it ameliorates cardiac lipid accumulation and cardiac remodeling in rats fed a high-fat diet has not been determined. This study investigated the effects of pyridostigmine on high-fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction and explored the potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a normal or high-fat diet and treated with pyridostigmine. Vagal discharge was evaluated using the BL-420S system, and cardiac function by echocardiograms. Lipid deposition and cardiac remodeling were determined histologically. Lipid utility was assessed by qPCR. A high-fat diet led to a significant reduction in vagal discharge and lipid utility and a marked increase in lipid accumulation, cardiac remodeling, and cardiac dysfunction. Pyridostigmine improved vagal activity and lipid metabolism disorder and cardiac remodeling, accompanied by an improvement of cardiac function in high-fat diet-fed rats. An increase in the browning of white adipose tissue in pyridostigmine-treated rats was also observed and linked to the expression of UCP-1 and CIDEA. Additionally, pyridostigmine facilitated activation of brown adipose tissue via activation of the SIRT-1/AMPK/PGC-1α pathway. In conclusion, a high-fat diet resulted in cardiac lipid accumulation, cardiac remodeling, and a significant decrease in vagal discharge. Pyridostigmine ameliorated cardiomyopathy, an effect related to reduced cardiac lipid accumulation, and facilitated the browning of white adipose tissue while activating brown adipose tissue.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2018
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