The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of maternal level factors (maternal depression, maternal spanking, parenting stress) and child level factors (cognitive ability, attachment, child welfare involvement) with children's problem behavior trajectory from age 3 to age 9. The study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCW), a 20-city sample of 4898 children born in urban areas in the United States between 1998 and 2001. Results indicate an association of all maternal and child level variables with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores. The multilevel model analysis indicates having an insecure attachment type at age 3 had the largest increasing impact on child behavior problems from age 3 to 9. Children's cognitive ability also had an increasing impact on child behavior problems over time and the impact of parenting stress at age 3 had a decreasing impact on behavior problems from age 3 to 9. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Children and Youth Services Review – Elsevier
Published: Nov 1, 2017
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