1 Introduction</h5> Soils with elevated metal concentrations from past mining activities pose risks to human and ecosystem health ( Gleyzes et al., 2002; Tongtavee et al., 2005; Igwe and Abia, 2007; Katanda et al., 2007; Lofts et al., 2007 ). Such soils also present challenges to characterization of metal solubility and reactivity because of the time-dependent action of variable soil characteristics on poorly soluble ore minerals. The chemical reactivity of metals in the solid phase of soil has been categorized as ‘inert’, ‘non-labile’ and ‘labile’ ( Degryse et al., 2009 ). Non-labile metal held within suspended sub-micron colloidal particles (SCP-metal) in filtered soil solutions has also been reported ( Lombi et al., 2003 ). Equilibrium between labile and solution forms is rapid, whereas slowly reversible reactions may occur between labile and non-labile forms, influenced by changes in soil properties (e.g. pH and Eh) ( Degryse et al., 2009 ). Many studies have demonstrated the effect on metal lability of soil characteristics such as pH ( Martinez and Motto, 2000; McBride et al., 2006; Bonten et al., 2008; Schulin et al., 2010 ) and the mix of metal adsorbents such as ferric oxides and humus ( Tipping et al.,
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta – Elsevier
Published: Dec 15, 2013
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