Protons and cations may affect metal accumulation in aquatic organisms and further influence metal toxicity. The effects of K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and H+ on the accumulation and toxicity of Cd and Pb in zebrafish larvae after 24 h exposure were examined. We found that Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and H+ exerted significant effects on both the accumulation and toxicity of Cd, and Ca2+, Mg2+, and H+ also affected both the accumulation and toxicity of Pb significantly. Subsequently, stability constants for the binding of Pb2+, Cd2+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and H+ to biotic ligand were estimated with the Langmuir model and biotic ligand model (BLM). Using the BLM-estimated binding constants calculated with toxicity data, a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model considering cation competition effects was used to predict Cd and Pb accumulation and survival rates in zebrafish larvae with varying cation concentrations. Results showed that the developed TK-TD model could successfully predict Cd and Pb toxicity to zebrafish larvae as a function of major competitive cations. The TK-TD model incorporated cation competition effects is a promising tool to quantify and assess the metal risk in natural water.
Science of the Total Environment – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2018
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