The objective of the study was to define neuropsychological and neurophysiological characteristics of cognitive disorders and their risk factors in patients irradiated in doses of more than 0.3 Sv as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The subjects were 60 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident with cognitive disorders irradiated in doses 0.3–4.5 Sv, 29 non-irradiated patients with cognitive disorders, 20 practically healthy persons. Methods — clinical neuropsychiatric, Ray Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Diagnostic Test for Dementia (TE4D), Short Syndromal Test (SKT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), statistical. Characteristic postradiation neuropsychological features included a decrease of immediate and long-term verbal memory; phenomena of retroactive interference and “carry new words”; dissociation of memory — deterioration of verbal memory with safety of visual memory; deterioration of speech in the form of acoustic-mnestic aphasia elements; deteriorations of sensor–motor memory; inertness of fine successive motor actions; deterioration of operations in calculation; specific deteriorations of association process and selective activity; safety of gnosis functions and optical-space activity. The dose-dependent cognitive infringements in a range of doses 0.3–4.5 Sv were established: decrease in the general IQ and verbal learning is proportional to increase of radiation dose. The dose–effect relationship were revealed regarding performance of brain association areas, that are responsible for control and regulation of motor program realization as well as memory (verbal) and complex intellectual activity, mediated by speech. Irradiation-induced dementia in patients was not detected. The neuropsychological qualities included an increase of relative delta-power, especially in the left frontal–temporal area, a decrease of absolute theta-power in the left temporal area and diffusive alpha-activity reduction. The diagnostic criteria of cognitive disorders following exposure in doses more than 0.3 Sv were developed. The severity of neuropsychiatric pathology, age and radiation dose are the main risk factors of these cognitive disorders.</P>
International Journal of Psychophysiology – Elsevier
Published: Sep 1, 2008
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