The environmental behaviors of emerging pollutants, benzophenone-type UV filters (BP-UV filters) and their derivatives were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and their receiving surface waters in Shanghai. The concentration level of selected BP-UV filters in the WWTPs was detected from ngL−1 to μgL−1. BP (621–951ngL−1) and BP-3 (841-1.32 × 103ngL−1) were the most abundant and highest detection frequency individuals among the target BP-UV filters in influents, whereas BP (198–400ngL−1), BP-4 (93.3–288ngL−1) and BP-3 (146–258ngL−1) were predominant in effluents. BP-UV filters cannot be completely removed and the total removal efficiency varied widely (−456% to 100%) during the treatment process. It can be inferred that the usage of BP and BP-3 are higher than other BP-UV filters in the study area. The lowest and highest levels were BP-2 (ND-7.66ngL−1) and BP-3 (68.5-5.01 × 103ng L−1) in the receiving surface water, respectively. Interestingly, the seasonal variation of BP-3 is larger than those of other BP-UV filters in surface water from Shanghai. There is no obvious pollution pattern of BP-UV filters in the surface water from the cosmetic factory area. The correlation analysis of BP-UV filters between WWTPs effluents and nearby downstream water samples suggested that BP-UV filters emitted from some WWTPs might be the main source of receiving surface water. Preliminary risk assessment indicated that the levels of BP-UV filters detected by the effluent posed medium to high risk to fish as well as other aquatic organisms.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: May 15, 2018
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