1 Introduction</h5> In recent years, semiconductor based on photocatalytic oxidation technique has attracted extensive attention due to efficient ways of practical applications in removing organic hazardous pollutants and water splitting [1–5] . Among the well-known semiconductor materials, nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been widely used for its outstanding properties, such as low cost, high photocatalytic performance, excellent stability and innocuousness [6–10] . However, pristine TiO 2 is a wide bandgap semiconductor (3.0–3.2 eV) [11,12] . It can only be irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) light, but the energy of UV light occupies a very small percentage (about 4%) of total solar energy. Besides, high electrons ( e − ) and holes ( h + ) recombination in TiO 2 material and low photocatalytic efficiency are also important factors that seriously reduce photocatalytical performance of TiO 2 .</P>To solve above-mentioned problems, great efforts were put on making the composition and turning nanostructure of TiO 2 to better its practical photocatalytical uses, such as broading the visible light absorption region of TiO 2 . Heteroatoms, such as B  , N  , Er  , Sn  , Zr  , Cr  , C  , Nb
Applied Surface Science – Elsevier
Published: Sep 30, 2014
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