Over the past decade, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) have increased dramatically, largely because clients want to maintain their horses in the best possible health through the third and even fourth decades of life. This review discusses current understanding of the pathophysiology of PPID as well as clinical signs, diagnostic tests, and treatment options for this disorder of older horses.</P><h5>Anatomy</h5> The pituitary gland of primates consists of a larger anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and a smaller posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and it is located at the base of the brain within the sella turcica. It lies beneath the optic chiasm and adjacent to the cavernous sinuses and is separated from the brain by a shelf-like fold of dura mater termed the diaphragma sella  . Use of the terms anterior and posterior , however, is anatomically incorrect for quadripedal species, in which the neurohypophysis usually lies dorsal to the remainder of the pituitary gland; in the horse, the neurohypophysis is actually embedded within the adenohypophysis  . In a group of 70 Dutch Warmblood horses, the pituitary gland weighed 3.1±0.5 g (mean±SD) and measured 23±2 mm by 20±2 mm in the transverse plane
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2002
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