Phase Shifts, Herbivory, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs to Climate Change

Phase Shifts, Herbivory, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs to Climate Change Many coral reefs worldwide have undergone phase shifts to alternate, degraded assemblages because of the combined effects of overfishing, declining water quality, and the direct and indirect impacts of climate change (1–9) . Here, we experimentally manipulated the density of large herbivorous fishes to test their influence on the resilience of coral assemblages in the aftermath of regional-scale bleaching in 1998, the largest coral mortality event recorded to date. The experiment was undertaken on the Great Barrier Reef, within a no-fishing reserve where coral abundances and diversity had been sharply reduced by bleaching (10) . In control areas, where fishes were abundant, algal abundance remained low, whereas coral cover almost doubled (to 20%) over a 3 year period, primarily because of recruitment of species that had been locally extirpated by bleaching. In contrast, exclusion of large herbivorous fishes caused a dramatic explosion of macroalgae, which suppressed the fecundity, recruitment, and survival of corals. Consequently, management of fish stocks is a key component in preventing phase shifts and managing reef resilience. Importantly, local stewardship of fishing effort is a tractable goal for conservation of reefs, and this local action can also provide some insurance against larger-scale disturbances such as mass bleaching, which are impractical to manage directly. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Biology Elsevier

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Publisher
Cell Press
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0960-9822
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.cub.2006.12.049
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Many coral reefs worldwide have undergone phase shifts to alternate, degraded assemblages because of the combined effects of overfishing, declining water quality, and the direct and indirect impacts of climate change (1–9) . Here, we experimentally manipulated the density of large herbivorous fishes to test their influence on the resilience of coral assemblages in the aftermath of regional-scale bleaching in 1998, the largest coral mortality event recorded to date. The experiment was undertaken on the Great Barrier Reef, within a no-fishing reserve where coral abundances and diversity had been sharply reduced by bleaching (10) . In control areas, where fishes were abundant, algal abundance remained low, whereas coral cover almost doubled (to 20%) over a 3 year period, primarily because of recruitment of species that had been locally extirpated by bleaching. In contrast, exclusion of large herbivorous fishes caused a dramatic explosion of macroalgae, which suppressed the fecundity, recruitment, and survival of corals. Consequently, management of fish stocks is a key component in preventing phase shifts and managing reef resilience. Importantly, local stewardship of fishing effort is a tractable goal for conservation of reefs, and this local action can also provide some insurance against larger-scale disturbances such as mass bleaching, which are impractical to manage directly.

Journal

Current BiologyElsevier

Published: Feb 20, 2007

References

  • Ecological goods and services of coral reef ecosystems
    Moberg, F.; Folke, C.
  • Coral bleaching: The winners and losers
    Loya, Y.; Sakai, K.; Yamazato, K.; Nakano, Y.; Sambali, H.; van Woesik, R.
  • Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change
    Donner, S.D.; Skirving, W.J.; Little, C.M.; Oppenheimer, M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.
  • Marine reserves: Rates and patterns of recovery and decline of predatory fish, 1983–2000
    Russ, G.R.; Alcala, A.C.
  • Sleeping functional group drives coral-reef recovery
    Bellwood, D.R.; Hughes, T.P.; Hoey, A.S.

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