Significant advances have been made in the application of pharmacogenomic testing for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders. Over the past decade, a number of studies have evaluated the utility of pharmacogenomic testing in pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders. The evidence base for pharmacogenomic testing in youth with depressive and anxiety disorders as well as attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed in this article. General pharmacogenomic principles are summarized and functional polymorphisms in P450 enzymes (and associated metabolizer phenotypes), the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms, serotonin 2A receptor genes (e.g., HT2AR) and catecholamine pathway genes (e.g., COMT) are reviewed. These commonly tested pharmacogenomic markers are discussed with regard to studies of drug levels, efficacy and side effects. The translation of pharmacogenomics to individualized/precision medicine in pediatric patients with ADHD, anxiety and depressive disorders has accelerated; however, its application remains challenging given that there are numerous divergent pathways between medication/medication dose and clinical response and side effects. Nonetheless, by leveraging variations in individual genes that may be relevant to medication metabolism or medication target engagement, pharmacogenomic testing may have a role in predicting treatment response, side effects and medication selection in youth with ADHD, depressive and anxiety disorders.
Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2018
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