Sodium persulfate has become the most popular oxidant source for the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment of organic contaminants in the subsurface. The most common persulfate activators, iron chelates and base, are often ineffective in initiating the generation of reactive oxygen species in field applications. In this study, glucose was investigated as a persulfate activator in systems containing varying concentrations of sodium hydroxide using nitrobenzene as a hydroxyl radical probe and hexachloroethane as a reductant + nucleophile probe. Glucose activation of persulfate increased as a function of sodium hydroxide addition, but was still effective at circumneutral pH regimes. Use of central composite rotatable experimental designs showed that hydroxyl radical and reductant + nucleophile generation rates increased as a function of persulfate at near-neutral pH regimes. Glucose activation of persulfate has the advantages over other activation pathways of more options and flexibility for effective process chemistry and of minimizing or eliminating the mass of sodium hydroxide added to the subsurface. The results of this research can be applied in the field by first evaluating glucose activation compared to base and iron chelate activation of persulfate in laboratory treatability studies.
Water Research – Elsevier
Published: Apr 15, 2018
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