1 Introduction</h5> Hepatitis E (HE) is a liver disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. The virus is transmitted predominantly via the fecal–oral route. There are approximately 20 million incidents of HE infections every year  . HE is usually epidemic in developing countries due to its poor sanitation, but occasionally sporadic in developed countries because of consumption of contaminated food. Generally, HE has a lower mortality through worldwide prevalence in young adults while soars to 20% in pregnant women in some regions  . HEV is a small non-enveloped virus with single-stranded RNA genome originally identified in a volunteer study in 1983. Increasingly, HEV isolates have been found worldwide and at least four distinct genotypes but with only one serotype have been determined in epidemiology. Genotypes 1 and 2 circulate in humans only, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic [3,4] . Genotype 1–4 HEVs do not grow well in cell culture, and they share high amino acid sequence identity of the capsid protein encoded by ORF2 gene, which constitutes dominant protective epitopes. Thus, many hepatitis E vaccines are based on the ORF2 capsid protein  . For example, in 1990s the VLPs of SAR-55 HEV-derived
International Immunopharmacology – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2015
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