1 Introduction</h5> Various optimization strategies have grown in popularity in air conditioning systems due to increasing concerns about the indoor comfort and building energy consumption simultaneously. Most of these methods generally assume that the indoor air is “perfectly mixed” and all spatial parameters, including air temperature, air contaminant, predicted mean vote (PMV), etc., are lumped at uniform values [1–4] . For many kinds of air conditioning systems, especially for thermal displacement ventilation systems (TDVS), spatial influence of the indoor environment is important to take into consideration because of the fully stratified air distribution. Nevertheless, limited works has been done to integrate the indoor spatial parameters into the optimization procedure. One reason is that the high-resolution indoor environment is complex and usually obtained by CFD simulations, which are software-based and difficult to integrate into optimization procedure directly. Some researchers combine artificial neural network (ANN) technique with CFD to acquire surrogate models of indoor environment, which are further used for environmental optimizations [5,6] . After plenty of CFD-data training, the obtained ANN model is integrated into optimization loops for fast and high-resolution fitness evaluations. The average error of the network is reported about ±6% and the optimization procedure takes 5–10
Energy and Buildings – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2013
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