Occurrence and distribution of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in soil and outdoor settled dust from a multi-waste recycling area in China

Occurrence and distribution of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in soil and outdoor... Distribution of 12 organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) was determined in soil and outdoor settled dust samples collected from a multi-waste (electronic, plastic, and rubber wastes and abandoned household-appliances and vehicles) recycling area, that encompassed different modes of operation i.e. open (ORS) and semi-closed recycling (SCRS). Among the twelve OPFRs analyzed, eleven were detected at a frequency of 75%–100% in all soil and dust samples. In soil samples, ΣOPFR concentrations were significantly higher at ORS (122–2100ng/g) than at SCRS (58.5–316ng/g) and nearby farmlands (37.7–156ng/g). The ΣOPFR concentrations in dust samples were higher than those in soil samples with spatial distribution similar to that observed for soil, decreasing from ORS (1390–42,700ng/g) to SCRS (914–7940ng/g). Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was the major OPFRs in both soil (<MDL–1370ng/g) and dust (39.9–16,300ng/g) samples. Chlorinated OPFRs [TCIPP, tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP)] and aryl-OPFRs [triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP)] exhibited spatial difference between ORS and SCRS. Principle component analysis (PCA) of OPFR concentrations revealed that TCIPP, TDCIPP, TPHP, TMPP originated from similar sources. TMPP was assessed to pose eco-toxicological risk (risk quotient values: RQs) in the soil ecosystem. The median estimated daily intake (EDI) of OPFRs via soil and outdoor settled dust ingestion (based on average ingestion rate) was 3.14×10−1ng/kgbw/day for adults at ORS. Our results suggest that waste recycling is an important source of chlorinated- and aryl-OPFRs in the environment. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Science of the Total Environment Elsevier

Occurrence and distribution of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in soil and outdoor settled dust from a multi-waste recycling area in China

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
ISSN
0048-9697
eISSN
1879-1026
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.013
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Distribution of 12 organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) was determined in soil and outdoor settled dust samples collected from a multi-waste (electronic, plastic, and rubber wastes and abandoned household-appliances and vehicles) recycling area, that encompassed different modes of operation i.e. open (ORS) and semi-closed recycling (SCRS). Among the twelve OPFRs analyzed, eleven were detected at a frequency of 75%–100% in all soil and dust samples. In soil samples, ΣOPFR concentrations were significantly higher at ORS (122–2100ng/g) than at SCRS (58.5–316ng/g) and nearby farmlands (37.7–156ng/g). The ΣOPFR concentrations in dust samples were higher than those in soil samples with spatial distribution similar to that observed for soil, decreasing from ORS (1390–42,700ng/g) to SCRS (914–7940ng/g). Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was the major OPFRs in both soil (<MDL–1370ng/g) and dust (39.9–16,300ng/g) samples. Chlorinated OPFRs [TCIPP, tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP)] and aryl-OPFRs [triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP)] exhibited spatial difference between ORS and SCRS. Principle component analysis (PCA) of OPFR concentrations revealed that TCIPP, TDCIPP, TPHP, TMPP originated from similar sources. TMPP was assessed to pose eco-toxicological risk (risk quotient values: RQs) in the soil ecosystem. The median estimated daily intake (EDI) of OPFRs via soil and outdoor settled dust ingestion (based on average ingestion rate) was 3.14×10−1ng/kgbw/day for adults at ORS. Our results suggest that waste recycling is an important source of chlorinated- and aryl-OPFRs in the environment.

Journal

Science of the Total EnvironmentElsevier

Published: Jun 1, 2018

References

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