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Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: “through the looking glass” (1) of transcranial magnetic stimulation

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is an insidious and chronic condition characterized by repetitive upper airway closure during sleep that includes a constellation of symptoms, commonly excessive daytime somnolence and cognitive defects [2] . OSAS represents one of the most important issues of public health because it affects a large proportion of the population at all ages, with increased morbidity and mortality and high medical and social costs [3] . The impact of OSAS is potentially profound and wide-ranging both in physical, emotional, and intellectual capacities [2] , causing a worsening in quality of life [3] . Cognitive defects represent some of the most serious symptoms of OSAS, as they include attention deficits, impaired concentration and memory problems [2,4] . The pathophysiology of OSAS has not been completely understood. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used, non-invasive neurophysiological technique capable of assessing motor cortex excitability painlessly and safely [5] . For the past 20 years, many researchers have investigated the responses to electromagnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex in a number of different physiological and pathological states [6] . The main body of data in sleep was gathered to understand its physiology, but related diseases or http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Sleep Medicine Elsevier
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