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Novel processing of iron–manganese alloy-based biomaterials by inkjet 3-D printing

1 Introduction</h5> Critical size defects in bone arise when bone loss occurring through trauma, infection or tumor resection exceeds a critical size where the injured bone cannot heal itself through mechanical fixation [1] . These bone defects result in nonunion fractures, and occur in 5–10% cases of traumatic fractures in the USA [2] . Treatment of critical size defects has typically been accomplished using bone grafting, either autologous or allogenic. Autologous bone grafting remains the preferred treatment because it fulfills the goals of being osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteoconductive. However, due to complications arising from harvesting autologous bone, such as donor site morbidity and pain, cadaveric bone or allograft bone may be used, though these treatments bare risk for disease transmission. Increasing interest has therefore been placed on developing synthetic bone grafts or bone graft substitutes which are relatively more abundant than bone grafts and carry reduced risk of disease transmission.</P>In order to fabricate synthetic bone scaffolds, three-dimensional (3-D) porous structures have been pursued to allow for bony ingrowth, infiltration of cells and fluids, and to mimic the natural cellular structure of bone [3] . Pore distribution, size and orientation largely influence cell bone regeneration and scaffold degradation kinetics http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Acta Biomaterialia Elsevier
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