In hydraulic fracturing, the design of the fracturing fluids is a crucial step in optimizing the effectiveness of hydrocarbon recovery. Herein, we describe a supramolecular dispersion with highly adjustable, reversible viscosity behavior, enabling control over the mobility, settling, and deposition of proppants. The supramolecular dispersion was obtained by complexation of an amino amide and maleic acid in an aqueous solution. The rheological properties of the developed fracturing fluid involving this supramolecular solution and proppant (silica sand) were characterized by frequency sweep and tixotropy tests, and settling studies. It was found that for a 2wt% dispersion, viscosity at zero shear rate could be adjusted by a factor of 1600 by changing pH from 3.8 to 8.3 in a reversible fashion. Settling studies revealed that the sedimentation velocity of sand particles decreased by five orders of magnitude from 2.3×10−3 m/s to 5.3×10−8 m/s upon an increase in pH from 4 to 8 in a reversible manner. Moreover, the supramolecular solution was found to maintain the rheological integrity even at NaCl concentrations above those of seawater. The significant reduction in the rate of proppant sedimentation and enhancement in the sedimentation stability were ascribed to the increased viscosity and the intermolecular and interparticle interactions between proppant and microscale networks and entanglements. In summary, supramolecular assembly of an amino amide and maleic acid has a potential to be effective fracturing fluids due to its highly pH adjustable viscosity and proppant carrying capacity, reliability at high salinities, and availability of its bio-based precursors in a sustainable manner.
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering – Elsevier
Published: Sep 1, 2016
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera