Nitrogen enrichment shifts functional genes related to nitrogen and carbon acquisition in the fungal community

Nitrogen enrichment shifts functional genes related to nitrogen and carbon acquisition in the... To better understand mechanisms of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics under anthropogenic N enrichment, we examined frequencies of C- and N-targeting genes in litter fungi. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that N enrichment selects for C-targeting genes but against N-targeting genes, if fungi preferentially invest resources in acquisition of growth-limiting nutrients. We conducted a fully-factorial litter and microbial transplant in a N fertilization experiment in Southern California grassland. The transplant design enabled us to contrast direct effects of N fertilization in the environment, indirect effects of N-induced shifts in the microbial community, and indirect effects of N-induced changes in plant litter chemistry. For each treatment, we assessed frequencies of select well-annotated fungal functional genes: cellulose-targeting AA9 genes (for C acquisition) versus ammonium transporter genes and amino acid permease genes (for N acquisition). We found that our hypothesis was upheld only with regard to shifts in the microbial community. Specifically, when grown in the same environment and litter, fungi from the N-fertilized plots displayed greater frequencies of cellulose-targeting AA9 genes from basidiomycetes, but smaller frequencies of ammonium transporter genes and amino acid permease genes, when compared to fungi from the control plots. In contrast, N fertilization in the plot environment was associated with higher frequencies of amino acid permease genes and ammonium transporter genes. Likewise, plant litter from the N-fertilized plots selected for higher frequencies of ammonium transporter genes. Altogether, we found fairly inconsistent effects of N enrichment on fungal functional genes related to C and N acquisition. Even if the genetic capacity of the fungal community to acquire C versus N changes owing to shifts in the microbial community, direct effects of N fertilization and indirect effects of litter chemistry may offset the response. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Soil Biology and Biochemistry Elsevier

Nitrogen enrichment shifts functional genes related to nitrogen and carbon acquisition in the fungal community

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0038-0717
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.05.014
Publisher site
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Abstract

To better understand mechanisms of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics under anthropogenic N enrichment, we examined frequencies of C- and N-targeting genes in litter fungi. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that N enrichment selects for C-targeting genes but against N-targeting genes, if fungi preferentially invest resources in acquisition of growth-limiting nutrients. We conducted a fully-factorial litter and microbial transplant in a N fertilization experiment in Southern California grassland. The transplant design enabled us to contrast direct effects of N fertilization in the environment, indirect effects of N-induced shifts in the microbial community, and indirect effects of N-induced changes in plant litter chemistry. For each treatment, we assessed frequencies of select well-annotated fungal functional genes: cellulose-targeting AA9 genes (for C acquisition) versus ammonium transporter genes and amino acid permease genes (for N acquisition). We found that our hypothesis was upheld only with regard to shifts in the microbial community. Specifically, when grown in the same environment and litter, fungi from the N-fertilized plots displayed greater frequencies of cellulose-targeting AA9 genes from basidiomycetes, but smaller frequencies of ammonium transporter genes and amino acid permease genes, when compared to fungi from the control plots. In contrast, N fertilization in the plot environment was associated with higher frequencies of amino acid permease genes and ammonium transporter genes. Likewise, plant litter from the N-fertilized plots selected for higher frequencies of ammonium transporter genes. Altogether, we found fairly inconsistent effects of N enrichment on fungal functional genes related to C and N acquisition. Even if the genetic capacity of the fungal community to acquire C versus N changes owing to shifts in the microbial community, direct effects of N fertilization and indirect effects of litter chemistry may offset the response.

Journal

Soil Biology and BiochemistryElsevier

Published: Aug 1, 2018

References

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